Implementing Layered Security for SAP

Since the Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX) Act passed in 2002, an organizations’ emphasis on their internal controls and risk management has increased significantly. United States Federal Law set new standards for all publicly traded US company’s boards, management and for public accounting firms. As a result of SOX, top management of these companies must individually certify the accuracy of their reported financial information.

Different software has been developed in order to meet these new requirements. One of the most famous is the module designed by SAP, known as SAP GRC Access Control. The driving idea behind this Security module is to ensure segregation of duties (SoD), by defining an SoD Matrix and allowing risk analysis reports to be periodically generated. It also helps organizations detect if they have Super User accounts in Production Systems, a finding usually flagged during any traditional audit as this violation implies there is no controlled environment for the use of emergency users. The SAP GRC Access Control module ties into workflows for creating new users or modifying existing users, allowing the workflow to interact with the SoD Matrix and alerting administrators if they are granting accesses that would represent an SoD conflict as they grant that access. Finally, the design and configuration of users’ roles can be broken out into several approval steps. This means that risk analysis can also be made at the role level.

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SAP Products and OpenSSL Heartbleed

There has been a lot of discussion last week about CVE-2014-0160, also known as the Heartbleed vulnerability. For those unfamiliar with the vulnerability I recommend heartbleed.com and, for a light hearted explanation, XKCD. Along with impacting a good chunk of the Internet it has also taken a toll on a number of products including those from Cisco, VMWare, and Oracle to name just a few. As you can imagine we have been watching the issue pretty closely and performing testing in our lab in order to better understand the impact, if any to SAP and its customers.  Here is our current understanding on the status of some of SAP’s products:

Vulnerable

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Securing Your SAP Through Research

In the latest Notes Tuesday Onapsis was credited with discovering and reporting almost half (10 out of 23) of the vulnerabilities addressed by SAP (or alternatively three quarters or one third, depending on how you do the math: there were only 13 Notes that were attributed to third party security researchers of which Onapsis discovered 10. And SAP released 23 security notes on Notes Tuesday; but had also released an additional 10 notes since the last patch Tuesday; bringing the total released during that period to 33).

Having received a number of messages of appreciation and additional questions about the work done by Onapsis Labs to find so many of the vulnerabilities remediated by SAP this month, I thought people should know about the effort and work done to discover and responsibly report these risks every month.

So how do we find these issues in the first place? There are a number of possible ways. It could be a result of a number of activities that the Onapsis Research Labs team or Professional Services team perform. It might be we discover the vulnerability during a services engagement for a client; or as the output from a dedicated bug hunting activity (where our labs team will take a deep dive with SAP technology and attempt to find previously unknown issues in SAP modules and applications) or they are born out of ideas that lead to “What if” and other brain storming conversations that take place internally.

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Analyzing SAP Security Notes February 2014 Edition

SAP is a complex and ever changing system, whether because of changes introduced to your SAP implementation to better suit your business or applying Security Notes (Patches) to ensure that newly disclosed vulnerabilities are mitigated.

In order to provide a predictable and scheduled flow of vulnerability mitigation and security patches, SAP releases their latest Security Notes information the second Tuesday of every month. Due to this regular disclosure of new security issues that could potentially weaken the security of SAP systems within an organization, it is highly recommended to carry out periodic assessments on a monthly basis in the least.

At Onapsis we are very concerned about not only our client’s SAP system security but the state of SAP security in general, so to assist SAP’s customers, we perform a detailed analysis of the monthly SAP Security Notes as soon as they are published. The goal of this is to provide SAP clients with detailed information about the newly released notes and vulnerabilities affecting their SAP systems and help guide their testing of these systems within their organization.

This month 33 Security Notes were published by SAP. Of these 33 notes, Onapsis Research Labs reported 10 of the underlying issues that have been addressed by SAP:

  • 1791081 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1768049 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1920323 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1915873 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1914777 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1911174 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1795463 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1789569 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1738965 by Sergio Abraham
  • 1939334 by Juan Pablo Perez Etchegoyen, Jordan Santarsieri and Pablo Muller.

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Security Geeks Introduction to SAP – RFC Destinations

As means of a background, I have been in the security field, specifically the pro-active testing (penetration testing) side of security for over a decade. As part of my role I would present at public and private conferences, helping to educate organizations about the benefits of pen testing or helping to educate pen testing teams about the latest techniques.

I say all of this in order to communicate that I would grade myself as having an above average knowledge of the security space and significant familiarity with commonly used terms in the industry. So when I recently took a product manager roles at Onapsis and was told I would have to learn about SAP and the security and risk implications around SAP in the enterprise I smiled and thought “well, I guess I know what I am doing the first couple of days”. As it turns out SAP is a world unto itself, with a lot of history and complexity.

This blog is the third in a series that documents the self-education that I have been undertaking as I learn about SAP, assessing the security of a SAP system and then implementing secure practices.

This blog builds on a webcast I was fortunate to take part in. My colleague Sergio Abraham has spent a considerable amount of time research RFC Destinations, the common ways they are configured and how various SAP components install RFC Destinations in order to function. I recommend in addition to this blog you view the webcast recording here and the corresponding question and answer session it generated here.

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Analyzing SAP Security Notes January 2014 Edition

SAP is a complex and ever evolving implementation; whether that is through changes introduced to your SAP implementation to better serve the business or the newly disclosed vulnerabilities targeting SAP products. In order to provide a predictable and scheduled flow of security, vulnerability and mitigation information SAP releases their latest Notes and security information regarding their products on the second Tuesday of every month. Because of this regular disclosure of new issues that could potentially weaken an organizations security SAP security assessments should be carried out on a regular basis. In order to ensure our customers are testing for all the published vulnerabilities in their SAP implementations we perform a detailed analysis of the monthly SAP Security Notes as soon as they are published.

CVSS distribution for the Security Notes released in January 2014

In January SAP released a total of 34 Security Notes, of those Notes, six were the result of reports made to SAP by the Onapsis Research Labs.
Notes 1918333, 1917381 and 1894049 were reported by Nahuel D. Sánchez, 1922547 and 1910914 by Jordan Santarsieri and note 1931399 by Willis Vandevanter all from Onapsis Research Labs.

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Analyzing SAP Security Notes December 2013 Edition

CVSS Distribution

CVSS distribution - SAP Security Notes December 2013

SAP is a complex and ever evolving implementation; whether that is through changes introduced to your SAP implementation to better serve the business or the newly disclosed vulnerabilities targeting SAP products. In order to provide a predictable and scheduled flow of security, vulnerability and mitigation information SAP releases their latest Notes and security information regarding their products on the second Tuesday of every month. Because of this regular disclosure of new issues that could potentially weaken an organizations security SAP security assessments should be carried out on a regular basis. In order to ensure our customers are testing for all the published vulnerabilities in their SAP implementations we perform a detailed analysis of the monthly SAP Security Notes as soon as they are published.

To date this is been a service we have carried out quietly on behalf of our customers. However due to wider requests for better understanding regarding the information being published by SAP this will be the first in a monthly series of posts that summarize and explain the analysis we performed in order to promptly update our products with the latest security checks.

In December we analyzed a total of 35 SAP Security Notes. Notes 1926485, 1913554 and 1911523 were reported by Sergio Abraham, from Onapsis Research Labs.
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A Simple Method for Fingerprinting SAP BusinessObjects

The main component of a BusinessObjects installation is the Central Management Server (CMS). It’s rarely changed and default TCP port is 6400. A simple way to identify if you are communicating with a BusinessObjects installation is to make a socket connection to the remote server and send the string ‘aps’. If everything is running correctly you should receive the IOR of the CMS.

Note that the hostname of the server is given at the end of the response which is useful in further attacks. Furthermore, if you parse the IOR you will get the IP and port of the CMS’s dynamic listening port which can be added to your Reconnaissance data.

A note on Defense

The most critical point of prevention is firewalling the CMS from unauthorized connections.

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Security Geeks Introduction to SAP – SAProuter and you

There has been a lot of attention in the news recently about vulnerabilities in SAProuter and how these vulnerabilities could be leveraged. The news spun out of a report that a piece of malware was actively learning about SAP systems known to any PC the malware infected. We wrote about this malware and the possible implications in a recent blog post; but the summary is it seems that the professional bad guy community is starting to take an interest in SAP.

So what is the SAProuter? It is a lot like the name suggests; an application produced by SAP which facilitates, logs (if enabled) and filters communications and network connections between different SAP systems, or between a SAP system and other networks or resources. However it is not a gateway/firewall technology; it only filters communications if the clients are configured to send their communication to the router; and not directly to the end point.

Because of this it should be used in conjunction with a firewall; or else a user who the SAProuter is configured to deny access to a specific backend SAP system could simply manually reconfigure their SAP client to attempt to connect directly with the sensitive SAP systems and start interacting with them directly; bypassing all the ACLs and controls in the SAProuter. A firewall is required to block those direct connections and only allow users to access SAP systems via SAProuter; thus allowing the SAProuter’s rules to be enforced (and connections to be logged).

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How Malware is evolving into the first step of attacks against SAP systems

When I talk to CISOs and other business leaders who are responsible for critical applications that rely on SAP a common question I get is how I would quantify the threat to their SAP systems. We talk about stories that have been shared with them by their colleagues, and the importance and value of following best practices. This morning I have been sharing with them an article showing some apparent reconnaissance activities being taken to discover deployed SAP systems.

The article describes a newly discovered Trojan that primarily targets gaining access to victims online banking accounts. What this malware does that is setting of alarm bells for everyone who is responsible for SAP systems is it analyses each machine the malware runs on to determine if that end user computer is used to communicate with SAP systems. This information is then passed back to the owners of the malware.

So what kind of information are we talking about? A PC with a SAP client installed will have configuration information for that client stored locally. This will contain at least the IP address of the SAP servers that the client connects to. If these clients are configured to login automatically those credentials are obtainable; if not then it is a simple matter to hook the application and capture the password the next time the user logs in.

Now, for those people who are itching to tell  me that they don’t care is an external attacker learns the IP address of their internal SAP systems because they cannot reach these systems I would refer you to this blog post; which debunks the myth of “internal” systems. I’d also point out the reason why the attacker is able to learn the IP addresses of your internal SAP systems if because they have taken control of an internal machine on your network already. Of course if you think I am wrong then you are gambling with the safety and soundness of your SAP systems; which is a high stakes game to play.

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